Louisville, Kentucky, was established in the late 18th century and has since undergone a remarkable transformation. Located on the border of the Ohio River, it quickly grew to become a major commercial and distribution hub. The river's single series of rapids from the confluence of the Monongahela and Allegheny rivers to their union with the Mississippi made it an ideal spot for a city to develop. Louisville was named after King Louis XVI of France and was founded in 1778 by George Rogers Clark, making it one of the oldest cities west of the Appalachians.
It was the birthplace of the Louisville and Nashville Railroad, which eventually grew to span 6,000 miles across 13 states. The Louisville Medical Institute (LMI) and Louisville Collegiate Institute (LCI) were both established in 1833.Today, the Louisville Water Company supplies water to over 800,000 residents in Louisville, Oldham, and Bullitt Counties. In 1840, LCI was renamed Louisville College and inherited part of the Jefferson Seminary estate for higher education in Louisville. The city is also home to the renowned Louisville Orchestra, which performs more than 125 concerts annually with a core of salaried musicians.
In 1988, the world's tallest computerized fountain, the Louisville Falls fountain, began operating on the Ohio River in Louisville. The city's first newspaper, the Louisville Gazette, was published in 1807.Its first theater opened in 1808 and its first church building was dedicated in 1809.In 1850, James Guthrie founded the Louisville and Nashville Railroad Company (L%26N) and was also involved in founding the University of Louisville. The ornate Louisville Palace is located in downtown Louisville's theater district and serves as the official headquarters of the Louisville Orchestra. Louisville is home to seven professional and semi-professional sports teams, including baseball's Louisville Bats who play in the International League as a Triple-A affiliate of the Cincinnati Reds.
Two regional railroads - Paducah and Louisville Railroad and Louisville and Indiana Railroad - also serve the city. The importance of Louisville to shipping continues today with UPS's Worldport global air cargo center at Louisville International Airport. The city hosts a variety of cultural events each summer, such as the Kentucky Shakespeare Festival (commonly called Shakespeare in Central Park). This free event takes place in July each year and presents Shakespeare plays in Central Park.
The Forecastle Festival is another popular event that takes place every July at the Louisville Waterfront Park. It is a three-day festival that celebrates music, art, and environmental activism.In 1917, shortly after America entered World War I, Zachary Taylor camp chose Louisville as its headquarters. This further cemented its importance as a major city.